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Bitva u Chickamauga

Bitva u Chickamauga


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Severní armáda Cumberlandu, asi 58 000 silná, se počátkem podzimu roku 186 pohybovala k Chattanoogě pod velením generála Williama Rosecransa. Generál Braxton Bragg, jižní velitel, stáhl své síly z města a pochodoval na jih. Rosecrans usoudil, že společníci míří do Atlanty, ale situaci špatně nepochopil. Braggovy síly obdržely posily a podařilo se jim nastražit past na své protivníky při střetu podél potoka Chickamauga, asi 10 mil jižně od Chattanoogy. Rosecrans ani Bragg na Chickamaugě nepředvedli památné vojenské schopnosti, ale konfederační nálož vedená prvky Prvního sboru armády Severní Virginie pod poručíkem Thomasem se stanou známými na „Skále Chickamauga“ a Longstreet „Býk lesa“ pro své příslušné role v bitvě.Těžké jižní ztráty zabránily Braggovi využít jeho výhody, když vojáci Unie zamířili na sever do Chattanoogy. Ztráty odborů dosáhly 16 000 a společníků 18 000. Po tomto zklamání prezident Lincoln nahradil Rosecransa americkým Grantem, který by velel západním armádám. Grant přidělil Thomasovi držet Chattanooga.


Tato olejomalba zobrazuje náboj 15. wisconsinské pěchoty a smrt plukovníka Hanse C. Hega v bitvě u Chickamauga. Zobrazit původní zdrojový dokument: WHI 2538

Památník 15. wisconsinské pěchoty v národním vojenském parku Chickamauga a Chattanooga. Zobrazit původní zdrojový dokument: WHI 91962

Datum (data): 18.-20. září 1863

Umístění: Chickamauga, Georgia (Google Map)

Kampaň: Kampaň Chickamauga (srpen-září 1863)

Výsledek: Konfederační vítězství

Souhrn

Porážka v Chickamauga ve státě Georgia na podzim roku 1863 zanechala jednotky Unie připnuté uvnitř Chattanooga v Tennessee a dočasně zastavila postup Unie do srdce Konfederace.

Na začátku srpna 1863, Union síly byly organizovány postoupit do horní Tennessee údolí řeky a vzít Chattanooga, Tennessee. Poté, co ji zachytili na začátku září, generálové Unie tlačili dále na jih. Na svého nepřítele narazili 10 mil za městem, přes státní hranici v Gruzii. Tři dny se 58 000 vojáků Unie postavilo proti 66 000 společníkům ve druhé nejkrvavější bitvě (po bitvě u Gettysburgu).

Protilehlé linie byly šest mil dlouhé. Většina bojů probíhala v lesích tak hustých, že občas ani jedna ze stran neznala přesné umístění té druhé. Někdy velitelé nemohli najít své vlastní jednotky. Strategické manévry byly obtížné a překvapivá setkání byla běžná. Během tří dnů dezinformace generálů Unie v kombinaci se špatným úsudkem umožnily společníkům vytlačit je zpět do Chattanoogy.

Role Wisconsinu

1., 10., 15., 21. a 24. pěší pluk Wisconsinu spolu s 1. wisconsinskou kavalerií a 3., 5. a 8. lehkým dělostřeleckým akumulátorem Wisconsinu se zapojily do některých nejprudších bojů.

Kaplan 1. wisconsinské pěchoty oznámil, že 80 procent jejích mužů bylo zabito, zraněno nebo zajato. 15. wisconsinskou pěchotu, složenou téměř výhradně z norských imigrantů, vedl na poli plukovník Hans C. Heg, který byl zabit v akci. 21. wisconsinská pěchota se ocitla obklopená. Podplukovník Harrison C. Hobart byl mezi zajatými a poslán do vězení Libby. Následující únor vedl odvážným tunelovým útěkem více než 100 vězňů.

Odkazy na další informace
Přečtěte si o zkušenostech vojsk ve Wisconsinu
Zobrazit bitevní mapy
Zobrazit související obrázky
Zobrazit originální dokumenty

[Zdroj: Zpráva o bojištích občanské války národa (Washington, 1993) Estabrook, C. Záznamy a náčrtky vojenských organizací (Madison, 1914) Láska, W. Wisconsin ve válce povstání (Madison, 1866).


Bojiště Chickamauga

Velká část bitvy u Chickamaugy se odehrála v lesnatém terénu.

Na konci léta 1863 Union armáda Cumberlandu pod velením generála Williama Rosecransa manévrovala na jih od středního Tennessee s cílem dobýt město Chattanooga, bránu do Konfederace. Do konce září překročila velká část odborové armády Lookout Mountain jižně od města a hrozila odříznutím konfederační armády v Tennessee, které velel generál Braxton Bragg. Braggovi společníci se stáhli směrem k LaFayette v Georgii. Obě armády se poté zapojily do hry na kočku a myš mezi kopci a zátokami jižně od Chattanoogy.

Dne 18. září 1863 se armáda společníků pokusila překročit West Chickamauga Creek na několika mostech a brodech. Tyto přechody byly proti, zejména u Reedova mostu a Alexandrova mostu, jezdeckou unií. Následující den, 19. září, potyčky podél potoků přerostly v bitvu v plném rozsahu. Po celý den 19. září se do boje z východu vlévaly jednotky společníka, posíleny generálem Jamesem Longstreetem a jeho muži z armády Severní Virginie, zatímco posily Unie se stěhovaly ze severu a jihu. Byl to děsivý boj, protože zalesněný terén skrýval pohyby a pozice vojsk, což vedlo k chaosu, protože jednotky na sebe slepě útočily. Po celý den byla bitva viděna tam a zpět lesem na východ od LaFayette Road, ačkoli za soumraku byla armáda Unie ukotvena v silné pozici podél LaFayette Road.

Památník Wilder Brigade je 85metrová věž s výhledem na jižní konec bitevního pole, kde bojovala „Lightning Brigade“ Johna Wildera. Je povoleno návštěvníkům sezónně lézt na jaře, v létě a na podzim, pokud to počasí dovolí.

Přes noc Bragg reorganizoval armádu v Tennessee a umístil generála Jamese Longstreeta, který právě dorazil z Virginie, ve vedení levého křídla armády, a generála Leonidas Polka do vedení pravice. Bragg plánoval brzký ranní útok, ale nedorozumění mezi Braggem a jeho podřízenými odložilo útok až kolem 9:30 ráno. Útok začal na Konfederační pravici, přičemž konfederační jednotky pod velením bývalého viceprezidenta Johna C. Breckenridge a irského původu Patricka Cleburna zaútočily na Unii vlevo podél dnešní Battleline Road a oblasti Kelly Field. V tomto boji byl zabit švagr prezidenta Abrahama Lincolna, generál společníka Benjamin Helm.

Toho rána generál William Rosecrans zažil vlastní špatnou komunikaci a mělo to katastrofální následky pro armádu Cumberlandu. V žáru bitvy vydal rozporuplné rozkazy generálu Thomasovi Woodovi ohledně toho, jak by měl rozmístit své jednotky. Wood vytáhl svá vojska z řady a začal je přesouvat na sever, čímž vytvořil zející díru ve středu armády Unie. V tu chvíli přišla katastrofa, protože Longstreetovi společníci zaútočili na místo, které Wood právě uvolnil poblíž kabiny Brotherton. Střed a pravice armády Unie se zhroutily a byly směrovány k Rossville. Generál George Thomas shromáždil svůj sbor na svazu vlevo na Snodgrass Hill a s podporou rezervního sboru pod velením Gordona Grangera celé odpoledne odrazil neúnavné útoky společníka a zachránil armádu Unie před zničením. Za svou práci toho dne se Thomas stal známým jako Skála Chickamauga. Večer 20. září 1863 se Thomas a jeho muži stáhli z bojiště a připojili se k armádě na cestě do Chattanoogy.


Bitva u Chickamauga - historie

Battle of Chickamauga byl konflikt, který se odehrál v Gruzii během americké občanské války. Federální a konfederační síly se zapojily do dvou dnů 19. a 20. září 1863 v Catoosa County a Walker County, Georgia.

Bitva byla posledním konfliktem v útočné iniciativě armády Unie s názvem Kampaň Chickamauga proti rebelům v severozápadní Gruzii a jihovýchodním Tennessee.

Na federální straně bitvu vedla armáda Cumberlandu pod velením generálmajora Williama Rosecransa, zatímco armádu Konfederace v Tennessee vedl generál Braxton Bragg.

Pozadí

V létě roku 1863 zahájil Rosecrans a jeho armáda úspěšnou kampaň proti konfederačním silám pod Braxtonem v centru Tennessee a povstalecká armáda se stáhla do Chattanoogy. Rosecrans byl instruován jak prezidentem, Abrahamem Lincolnem, tak nejvyšším velitelem, generálmajorem Henry W. Halleckem, aby pokračoval v ofenzivě a převzal Chattanooga, což bylo důležité strategické město, od společníků.

Pokud jde o něj, Bragg přesvědčil vůdce Konfederace, aby rozšířili svou armádu o jednotky z jiných oblastí s úmyslem nejen bránit Chattanooga, ale také zahájit protiútok proti armádě Unie. Tento krok zvýšil jeho armádu z 52 000 mužů na necelých 70 000, což převyšovalo armádu Rosecransů asi o 10 000 mužů.

Rosecrans uznal, že bude mít určité potíže s dodržováním pokynů prezidenta. Ofenzivní tah by znamenal, že by jeho síly musely překročit náhorní plošinu Cumberland, obtížný terén s nekvalitními silnicemi. Kromě toho by jeho zásobovacím linkám bránily hory dozadu.

Rosecrans chtěl odložit ofenzivu, dokud nebudou k dispozici všechny požadované zásoby, aby se nemusel starat o jejich získání, když je v pohybu. Chtěl zdržet tah až do 17. srpna, ale Halleck trval na tom, aby postoupil, aniž by se déle zdržoval. Rosecrans se však začal hýbat kupředu až 16. srpna.

Plán kampaně

Rosecrans ’ měl v plánu postoupit vpřed k řece Tennessee a poté nahromadit další zásoby, než se ji pokusí přebrodit. Cítil, že by bylo nemožné překročit řeku, kdyby nepřátelská armáda držela druhou stranu, takže jeho plánem bylo vytvořit odklon, který by přitáhl Braggovy síly do potyček severně od Chattanoogy a použil je jako rozptýlení, zatímco jeho hlavní armáda přebrodil řeku na různých místech několik mil po proudu.

Jakmile byli za řekou, měl v plánu zaútočit na město ze západu, jihu a jihovýchodu. Útok z jihovýchodu by dal armádě Unie kontrolu nad železniční tratí, která spojovala Chattanooga s Atlantou. Tato železnice byla pro společníky životně důležitou zásobovací linkou a její převzetí by znamenalo, že Braggova armáda bude muset buď ustoupit z Chattanoogy, nebo se pokusit město bránit, aniž by měla zdroj zásob.

Kampaň

Armádě Unie trvalo až do 23. srpna, než se dostala k řece. Rosecrans začal realizovat svůj podvod a poslal část své armády na sever od Chattanooga. Zdá se, že podvod fungoval, a Bragg si myslel, že se o přechod pokusí severně od Chattanooga.

29. srpna se prvním jednotkám Unie podařilo překročit řeku Tennessee v přístavu Caperton ’s Ferry. Následující den proběhlo ve Shellmoundu druhé a třetí křížení. 31. srpna proběhl v Battle Creek čtvrtý přechod a do 4. září řeku úspěšně překročili všichni vojáci Unie, kteří by se zúčastnili útoku na Chattanooga.

Když si Bragg uvědomil, že město neudrží, stáhl se do Lafayette v Gruzii a armáda Unie vstoupila 9. září do Chattanoogy. Kvůli jeho plánu zaútočit na několik front byly síly Rosecrans ’ široce rozptýleny. Přesto si stále myslel, že Braggovi muži jsou v nepořádku, a původně nařídil některým svým jednotkám pronásledovat ustupující společníky. Později se rozhodl proti této taktice a místo toho se rozhodl konsolidovat své jednotky.

Bragg také konsolidoval svá vojska a do 15. září se rozhodl, že nejlepší volbou pro jeho armádu bude zahájit ofenzivu za dobytí Chattanoogy. Začal přesouvat svá vojska do Chickamauga Creek.

Bitva u Chickamauga

Bitva začala 19. září a odehrála se na několika frontách na mnoha různých místech. Armáda Unie rychle získala iniciativu při různých setkáních, a když dorazily posily, společníci byli nuceni ustoupit v několika oblastech. Jak ale den postupoval, společníkům se podařilo zastavit federální ofenzivu a Bragg cítil, že jeho strana je v lepší pozici a způsobila značné škody silám Unie.

Bragg plánoval zahájit nový útok na federální vojáky za úsvitu 20. září, ale výpadek komunikace znamenal, že ofenziva za úsvitu nemohla proběhnout. Příchod posil znamenal, že společníci výrazně převyšovali jednotky Unie a Rosecrans si uvědomil, že není schopen zahájit ofenzivu.

Zpoždění v útoku společníka umožnilo unijní armádě lépe se připravit na očekávanou akci a Bragg později uvedl, že toto zpoždění bylo hlavním důvodem, proč jeho vojáci nepoškodili armádu Unie vážnou porážkou.

Protože armáda Konfederace měla tu výhodu, Rosecransovi nezbylo nic jiného, ​​než soustředit svoji obranu do Chattanoogy, doporučil své roztroušené armádě ustoupit tváří v tvář trvalým útokům Konfederace. Rosecrans nařídil svým mužům, aby zahájili generální ústup do Chattanooga, což znamenalo konec bitvy u Chickamauga a vítězství pro společníka.

Výsledky a následky

Oběti na obou stranách v bitvě byly vysoké. Federální armáda měla 1 657 smrtelných obětí, 9 756 zraněných a dalších 4 757 pohřešovaných nebo zajatých. Na straně společníka bylo 2312 smrtelných obětí, 14 674 zraněných a 1464 pohřešovaných nebo zajatých. Počet obětí byl druhý nejvyšší v celé občanské válce, překročen pouze oběťmi v Gettysburgu.

Braggova pomalost k útoku proměnila taktické vítězství Jihu ve strategickou porážku, protože federálním silám bylo umožněno uprchnout do Chattanoogy. Po bitvě u Chickamauga Bragg obléhal Chattanooga, ale ta byla silně opevněná a federální jednotky dokázaly udržet kontrolu. Přestože jednotky Unie nemohly přijímat zásoby, dokázaly v Chattanoogě vydržet, dokud nepřijel generálmajor Ulysses S. Grant s uvolňující silou, která koncem listopadu prolomila obléhání Bragga.


Historie gruzínské národní gardy

Večer 18. září 1863 federální velitel generálmajor William Rosecrans vyslal na generálmajora George Thomase, velitele 14. sboru, na sever podél Lafayette Road. Jeho záměrem bylo rozšířit jeho obrannou linii a udržet linii ústupu federální armády na sever do Chattanoogy. Ráno 19. září zaujali Thomasovi muži#8217s pozice v polích Kelly Farm. [1] Poté, co obdržel zprávu od federálního plukovníka Daniela McCooka o izolované povstalecké brigádě uvězněné na západní straně řeky, Thomas vyslal třetí divizi generálmajora Johna Brannona, aby postupovala a rozvíjela situaci. Brannon, voják z povolání a mexický americký válečný veterán rozeslal rozkaz, aby se muži dostali do pohybu. Rychle padající káva a napůl uvařená snídaně, muži Brannona se začali přesouvat na východ, brigáda plukovníka Johna Croxtona a#8217s se přesunula na Brotherton Road a plukovník Ferdinand Van Derveer se orientoval na Reed ’s Bridge Road.

Zahajovací akce 19. září 1863. Mapa Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com.


Konfederační vojska, se kterými se McCook setkal, byli jezdci 1. Gruzie, kteří vrhli šarvátky jižně od Jayova mlýna, přibližně 189 mil západně od Reedova mostu. Poté, co již obdržel rozkaz ke stažení, McCook opustil pole Gruzíncům, než ohlásil svá zjištění Thomasovi. V době, kdy se Thomasovy brigády přesunuly na východ a hledaly izolovanou konfederační brigádu, byli Gruzínci připraveni v potyčkovém pořadí přes Reedovu a Bridge Road připravenou přijmout Van Derveera a#8217s potyčky. Pohybující se lesem na východ jen jednu čtvrt míle jižně od 1. Gruzie, se Croxtonova řada potyček skládala z 10. Indiana, která narazila na jezdecké síly Brig. Generál Nathan Bedford Forrest. Croxton vyslal kurýry, aby informoval Brannona o kontaktu na jeho frontu, a začal manévrovat se svými pěšími pluky do řady, což byl obtížný proces v lesnatém terénu. Forrest mezitím nařídil své kavalerii sesednout a držet se země, zatímco byla povolána podpora pěchoty.

Když generál William T. Walker přijal jednu ze zpráv Forresta a#8217s, velel konfederačnímu rezervnímu sboru, nařídil kolegovi Georgianovi, plk. Claudiusovi Wilsonovi, aby za zvuku kontaktu spěchal se svou brigádou. Walker, stejně jako Brannon, byl vojenským vojákem z povolání a válečným veteránem z Mexika a stejně jako Brannon bude brzy mít dvě brigády mířící do blízkosti Jay ’s Mill jako texaská brigáda Brig. Generál Matthew Ector zapadl za Wilsona.

Konfederační kavalérie držela dostatečně dlouho, aby Wilson nasadila své pluky, aby hrozila Croxtonovi. Pluky Wilsona, 25., 29. a 30. Gruzie s 1. ostřelovači 1. gruzínského praporu a 4. louisianskými ostrostřelci stiskly Croxtonovu linii, která se ohnula, ale nepřerušila. [2] Během příštích dvou a půl hodiny byly brigády nasávány do rostoucího boje v Jay ’s Mill.

Zmatek a zesílení

Tato akce znepokojila jak Rosecransa, tak jeho protivníka z Konfederace, generála Braxtona Bragga. Braggův bojový plán vyzýval k útoku 25 000 mužů na federální linie podél Lafayette Road, jižně od Jayova mlýna. Nečekaná přítomnost Thomase na severu ohrožovala Braggovo pravé křídlo. Rosecrans mezitím nařídil Thomasovi obranné pozice, jen aby jeho podřízený zapojil divizi s nepřítelem neznámé síly.

Před zahájením ofenzívy na Lafayette Road se Bragg rozhodl zajistit si bok v blízkosti Jay ’s Mill. Vyslal své rezervní sbory a pět brigád generálmajora Bena Cheathama a divize#8217s. Rosecrans mezitím přesunul divize z 20. a 21. sboru na sever, aby posílil Thomase. Federální i konfederační velitelé vysílali jednotky bez ohledu na linii velení, což je rozpis velení a řízení, který by se ještě zhoršil terénem a nedostatečnou viditelností.

Akce odpoledne 19. září 1863. Mapa Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com.


The Fighting Moves South

Cheatham ’s 7 000 společníků narazilo do federálních divizí krátce po poledni, v blízkosti farmy Brock. [3] Po spáchání Cheathamu vyslal Bragg třetí divizi pod velením generálmajora A. P. Stewarta a nařídil mu, aby se přesunul za zvuku zbraní. [4] Stewart dorazil jižně od linek Cheathamu krátce před 14:00. včas stabilizovat slábnoucí konfederační linii. Se Stewartem se pohybovali 4. gruzínští ostrostřelci a 37. gruzínská pěchota. [5] Gruzínci byli schopni vytlačit tvrdohlavé federální obránce divize generálmajora Van Cleveho ze svých pozic na Lafayette Road. Poté, co vzal značné množství půdy, Stewart měl nedostatek mužů k udržení své pozice a byl nucen odstoupit na východ od Lafayette Road. [6]

Gruzínci vstupují do příkopu smrti

Briga. Gen. Hans Christian Heg. NPS

V úmyslu najít nepřátelský bok se Rosecrans setkal s nepravděpodobným názvem Brig. Gen. V očekávání, že najde levé křídlo Konfederace, Davis místo toho narazil na hlavní tělo Braggovy a#8217s čekající útočné síly-25 000 silných. V příštích dvou a půl hodinách se nejdivočejší boj bitvy točil kolem Viniardova pole, dokud se federální linie v 16:30 nezřítila. a Seveřané byli posláni proudit zpět přes Lafayette Road. Pokus o shromáždění své 3. brigády, plukovník norského původu Hans Christian Heg jel po přední linii svých mužů a napomínal je osobním příkladem odvahy. Když objel koně, Hega zasáhla kulka, která mu probodla břicho. Odvinul se z rány, ale udržel se v sedle a zůstal se svými muži. [7]

Pronásledující prchající federální jednotky, Gruzínci z Brig. Generál Henry Benning sypal salvu za salvou do zad ustupujících federálních vojáků. Sgt. W. R. Houghton z 2. Gruzie akci připomněl:

“ Stáli jsme tam … jejich sestřelení … Byla to strašná porážka. ” [8] Porážku brzy navštívili muži Benninga, když postupovali do palebného pole brigády plukovníka Johna Wildera , jejichž muži byli vyzbrojeni sedmi opakovanými puškami. Benningovi a Gruzínci byli rozřezáni na kusy. Z 1 200 Gruzínců se 490 stalo oběťmi. Federálové také trpěli. Mezi padlými byl Heg, který druhý den ráno zemřel na následky zranění v polní nemocnici. [9]

Pomník 2. gruzínské pěchoty v Chickamauga. Fotografie majora Williama Carrawaye


Do 18:00 boje většinou skončily ve Viniardově poli, kde se utkalo 15 brigád. Po téměř 12 hodinách nepřetržitého boje byly boje ukončeny, s výjimkou vzácného nočního útoku zahájeného rozdělením generálmajora Patricka Cleburna přes pole Winfrey. Muži obou armád se usadili na neklidnou noc. Navzdory teplotám, které klesly pod bod mrazu, bylo vojákům obou armád zakázáno rozdělávat ohně kvůli blízkosti nepřátelských sil.

S příchodem podplukovníka Jamese Longstreeta na pole Bragg reorganizoval svou armádu na dvě křídla. Longstreet dostal velení nad levým křídlem, zatímco generálmajor Leonidas Polk velel pravému. Braggův bitevní plán zůstal nezměněn: zaútočte a odveďte federální armádu na jih, pryč od linie ústupu do Chattanoogy.

Na opačné straně Lafayette Road Rosecrans, který odešel bez spánku, prozkoumal své linie se záměrem podpořit linky Thomas ’ na sever. Rosecrans by souhlasil s posílením Thomas – rozhodnutí, které by mělo druhý den bitvy osudové důsledky.

Památník plukovníka Peytona Colquitta v Chickamauga.
Fotografie majora Williama Carrawaye
Akce pokračuje, Federální sever v ohrožení

Ačkoli Bragg měl v úmyslu za úsvitu zaútočit, útok společníka se rozběhl až v 9:30, kdy Thomas Thomas zasáhl sbor generálporučíka D.H. Ačkoli byly na části linií krvavě odraženy, dvě brigády Hill ’s Corps dokázaly otočit Thomas ’s na levé křídlo. Společníci jeli na jih po Lafayette Road do Kelly Field a ohrožovali celou federální pozici. Rosecrans, cítící hrozbu, přesunul síly z jihu a v 11:30 byl Hill nucen zpět, ale ne dříve než Brig. Generál James Deshler, velitel brigády v divizi generálmajora Patricka Cleburna, byl zabit, zasažen do hrudi dělostřeleckou střelou. [10] Pohybem na podporu Hilla byl smrtelně zraněn plukovník Peyton Colquitt, velící Gist ’s Brigade of Georgia ’s and South Carolinians. Colquitt, dříve velel 46. gruzínskému pěšímu pluku. [11]

Generálporučík Longstreet's Assault. Mapa Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com.


Úspěch Hill ’s dělal starosti Rosecransovi, který začal přesouvat další síly na sever. V průběhu přesunu odhalil federál v jejich linii mezeru v celé divizi. Právě když se mezera otevřela, Longstreet zahájil útok do mezery. Divize Davise a generálmajora Phillipa Sheridana rozdrtilo 12 000 stoupajících společníků.

Briga. Generál W. H Lytle
Velitelem první brigády Sheridana byla brig. Gen.William Lytle, Ohioan, Lytle byl před válkou oslavovaným básníkem a byl populární na severu i na jihu. Lytle byl zatlačen brigádou Alabamianů a byl usazen a řídil pohyb svých vojsk, když ho udeřil do zad míček z muškety. Zůstal v sedle a pokračoval ve vydávání rozkazů, dokud nebyl zasažen krví rozstřikující hlavu na uniformě štábní důstojnice. Muži Lytle a#8217 se ho pokusili odnést pryč od konfliktu, ale požádal, aby byl ponechán na poli, kde vypršel. [12] Konfederační vojáci vyrazili vpřed a poznali Lytle a kolem jeho těla vytvořili strážce. Zprávy se šířily mezi šedými řadami. V současné době, společník brig. Generál Patton Anderson, přemožený žalem, stál před Lytlem. Anderson a Lytle byli dobří přátelé před americkou občanskou válkou. V roce 1860 se přátelsky rozešli v Charlestonu a slibovali, že do jejich přátelství nebude nic zasahovat. Anderson s pláčem sňal snubní prsten Lytle a#8217s a zajistil si pramen vlasů, aby ho poslal domů své vdově. [13]

S porážkou, která se rychle zvrhla ve zmatek, byli Rosecrans, jeho náčelník štábu a budoucí prezident James Garfield a tři velitelé sboru vyhnáni z pole. Jedna třetina federální armády přestala existovat jako bojová síla. Nebýt odhodlaného stanoviště mužů generálmajora Thomase a mužů#8217 na Snodgrass Hill, mohla být celá federální armáda podrobně zničena. Thomas se udržel tak dlouho, aby zachoval federální armádu, než se stáhl do Rossville na sever. Přesto byly stovky federálních vojáků zajaty onrudujícími společníky.

Zoufalý postoj generálmajora Georga Thomase. Mapa Hal Jespersen, www.cwmaps.com.


Ráno 21. září se Konfederace probudila a zjistila, že federální armáda vyklouzla. Rosecrans obnoví svou základnu v Chattanooga, ale jeho působení ve funkci velitele armády se chýlí ke konci. Za necelý týden by byl Rosecrans nahrazen tvrdě bojujícím západním generálem jménem Ulysses Grant.

Ačkoli byl technicky vítěz, Bragg selhal ve svém cíli zničit Rosecrans. Pokračoval v hašteření se svými podřízenými veliteli až do listopadu, kdy vyzve federální armádu k ovládnutí Chattanoogy.

Více než 34 000 ze 125 000 vojáků zaměstnaných v Chickamauga se stalo oběťmi. Ale D.H. Hill vzpomínaje na bitvu o několik let později poznamenal, že skutečnou obětí Chickamauga byla naděje.

“ Zdá se mi, že elán Jižního vojáka nebyl po Chickamaugovi nikdy spatřen, že brilantní pomlčka, která ho odlišovala, byla navždy pryč. Silně bojoval do posledního, ale po Chickamaugovi, s mrzutostí zoufalství a bez nadšení naděje. Že ‘ neúrodné vítězství ’ zpečetilo osud Jižní konfederace. ” [14]

[1] Powell, David A. a David A. Friedrichs. Mapy Chickamauga: Atlas kampaně Chickamauga, včetně operací Tullahoma, 22. června - 23. září 1863. New York: Savas Beatie, 2009. 48


Popis bitvy u Chickamauga

Ve slabě osvětleném srubu Vdovy Glennové byla rozprostřena vojenská mapa. Znepokojení důstojníci odboru armády Cumberlandu se tísnili kolem, když generálmajor William S. obnova divokých bojů, které většinu toho dne vířily podél břehů Chickamauga Creek.

Armáda Unie byla tvrdě tlačena podél prodloužené bitevní linie, ale odmítla se zlomit pod tlakem opakovaných útoků ze strany Konfederační armády generála Braxtona Bragga z Tennessee. XIV. Sbor genmjr. George H. Thomase nesl hlavní tíhu některých nejprudších bojů. Thomas, unavený z každodenní práce, se usadil na židli a zdříml si. Rosecrans zase podle své praxe každého důstojníka požádal o radu ohledně nadcházejícího boje. Pokaždé, když bylo uvedeno jeho jméno, Thomas se probudil dostatečně dlouho na to, aby řekl: „Posílil bych levici“, než znovu usnul.

Ačkoli Rosecransova armáda byla zkrvavená, její linie byla stále nepřerušená a bylo rozhodnuto obnovit bitvu 20. v podstatě na stejném místě, jaké nyní vojska okupovala. Thomas by byl posílený a nabitý držením vlevo, který překročil LaFayette Road, zásadní spojení se strategicky důležitou Chattanooga, Tenn., 10 mil severně. XX. Sbor generálmajora Alexandra McCooka by se zavřel po Thomasově pravici, zatímco XXI. Sbor Thomase Crittendena by byl držen v záloze. V noci zvonění seker řeklo čekajícím společníkům, že jejich nepřítel zoufale posiluje jeho pozice.

Armáda Cumberlandu bojovala statečně a mezi veliteli Unie byl důvod k optimismu. Od té doby, co vyšel ze zimoviště, Rosecrans bravurně manévroval Braggem a jeho armádou z Tennessee a zajal Chattanooga, prakticky bez výstřelu. Ve svém okamžiku vrcholného úspěchu však Rosecrans udělal jednu chybu: spletl si Braggovo řádné stažení za bezhlavý ústup a unáhleně rozdělil svou sílu na tři křídla. Když se tyto oddělené síly slepě pohybovaly horskými průsmyky do krajiny na severu Georgie a pronásledovaly „zbitého“ nepřítele, byla každá příliš vzdálená na to, aby poskytla podporu ostatním v případě nepřátelského útoku. Když se federální vojska rozprostřela na 40 mil širokou frontu v neznámém terénu, Bragg zastavil své síly v LaFayette, Ga., 25 mil jižně od Chattanooga.

Bragg si uvědomil velikost své příležitosti podrobně se vypořádat s každým křídlem armády Unie a získat ohromující vítězství Konfederace. Nařídil svým podřízeným, aby zahájili útoky na roztroušené federální jednotky, ale reagovali pomalu - dokonce nespolupracující -. Vztahy mezi Braggem a jeho poručíky se vážně zhoršily po diskutabilních ústupech z Perryville, Ky. A Murfreesboro, velitelé sboru a divizí Tenn. Braggu téměř k muži cítili, že promrhal vítězství svým nešikovným zacházením s vojsky. The lack of cooperation in the higher echelons of Bragg’s army contributed greatly to the squandering of a chance for one of the most lopsided victories of the war.

In the nick of time, and with substantial help from his enemy, Rosecrans collected his troops in the vicinity of Lee and Gordon’s Mill along the banks of a sluggish little stream the Cherokee Indians had named ‘Chickamauga’ after the savage tribe that had lived there many years earlier. Now, two great armies would prove once again that ‘River of Death’ was an accurate translation. In the vicious but indecisive fighting of September 19, both Rosecrans and Bragg committed more and more troops to a struggle which began as little more than a skirmish near one of the crude bridges that crossed the creek. Though little was accomplished the first day, the stage was set for a second day of reckoning.

The importance of the war in the West was not lost on the Confederate high command. Already three brigades of the Army of Northern Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood, had arrived by rail to reinforce Bragg. Lieutenant General James Longstreet, Robert E. Lee’s ‘Old Warhorse’ and second in command, was due at any time with the balance of his I Corps. These veteran troops would give Bragg an advantage few Confederate commanders would know during the war–numerically superiority. As the Virginia troops arrived, Bragg’s army swelled to 67,000 men, outnumbering the Federals by 10,000.

While Rosecrans convened his council of war at the Widow Glenn’s, Longstreet was searching for the elusive Bragg. Bragg unaccountably had failed to send a guide to meet him, and after a two-hour wait, Longstreet struck out with his staff toward the sound of gunfire.

As they groped in the darkness, Longstreet and his companions were met with the challenge. ‘Who comes there?’ ‘Friends,’ they responded quickly. When the soldier was asked to what unit he belonged, he replied with numbers for his brigade and division. Since Confederate soldiers used their commanders’ names to designate their outfits, Longstreet knew he had stumbled into a Federal picket. In a voice loud enough for the sentry to hear, the general said calmly, ‘Let us ride down a little and find a better crossing.’ The Union soldier fired, but the group made good its escape.

When Longstreet finally reached the safety of the Confederate lines, he found Bragg asleep in an ambulance. The overall commander was awakened, and the two men spent an hour discussing the plan for the following day. Bragg’s strategy would continue to be what he hoped to achieve on the 19th. He intended to turn the Union left, placing his army between Rosecrans and Chattanooga by cutting the LaFayette Road. Then, the Confederates would drive the Army of the Cumberland into the natural trap of McLemore’s Cove and destroy it, a piece at a time.

Bragg now divided his force into two wings, the left commanded by Longstreet and the right by Lt. Gen. Leonidas Polk, the ‘fighting bishop’ of the Confederacy. Polk would command the divisions of John C. Breckinridge, who had serves as vice president of the United States under President James Buchanan, and Patrick Cleburne, a hard-fighting Irishman. Also under Polk were the divisions of Benjamin Franklin Cheatham, States Rights Gist and St. John R. Liddell. Breckinridge and Cleburne were under the direct supervision of another lieutenant general, D.H. Hill. Longstreet was given the divisions of Evander Law and Joseph Kershaw of Hood’s corps, A.P. Stewart and William Preston of Simon Bolivar Buckner’s corps, and the divisions of Bushrod Johnson and Thomas Hindman.

Breckinridge and Cleburne were to begin the battle with a assault on Thomas at the first light. The attack was to proceed along the line, with each unit going into action following the one on its right. Bragg’s order subordinating Hill to Polk precipitated some costly confusion among Southern commanders as the time for the planned attack came and went. Somehow, Hill had been lost in the shuffle and never received the order to attack. Bragg found Polk calmly reading a newspaper and waiting for his breakfast two miles behind the lines. Polk had simply assumed that Bragg himself would inform Hill of the battle plan.

When the Confederate tide finally surged forward at 9:45 a.m., Thomas was ready with the divisions of Absalom Baird, Richard Johnson, John Palmer and John Reynolds. Breckinridge’s three brigades hit the extreme left of the Union line, two of them advancing smartly all the way to the LaFayette Road before running into reinforcements under Brig. Gen. John Beatty, whose 42nd and 88th Indiana regiments steadied the Federal line momentarily. A redoubled Rebel effort forced the 42nd back onto the 88th, and several Union regiments were obliged to shift their fire 180 degrees to meet the thrust of enemy troops in their rear. Fresh Federal soldiers appeared and finally pushed Breckinridge back.

Cleburne’s troops followed Breckinridge’s assault and suffered a similar fate. The hard-pressed Rebels pulled back 400 yards to the relative safety of a protecting hill. As he inspected the ammunition supply of his men before ordering them forward again, one of Cleburne’s ablest brigadiers, James Deshler, was killed by an exploding shell that ripped his heart from his chest. Seeking shelter in a grove of tall pines, the Confederates traded round for round but could not carry the breastworks.

Thomas’ hastily constructed breastworks had proven to be of tremendous value, but several of the Union regiments suffered casualties of 30 percent or higher. The brigades of Colonel Joseph Dodge, Brig. Gen. John H. King, Colonel Benjamin Scribner and Brig. Gen. John C. Starkweather had held the extreme left of the Union line since the day before and had been engaged for over an hour when Cleburne’s attacks gained their full fury. For all their seeming futility, the Confederate assaults against Rosecrans’ left did have one positive result. Thomas’ urgent pleas for assistance were causing Rosecrans to thin his right in order to reinforce the left through the thick, confusing tangle of forest.

At the height of the fighting on the left, one of Thomas’ aides, Captain Sanford Kellogg, was heading to Rosecrans with another of Thomas/ almost constant requests for additional troops. Kellogg noticed what appeared to be wide gap between the divisions of Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Wood on the right and John Reynolds on the left. In actuality, the heavily wooded area between Reynolds and Wood was occupied by Brig. Gen. John Brannan’s division. When Kellogg rode by, Brannan’s force was simply obscured by late-summer foliage.

When Kellogg informed Rosecrans of the phantom gap, the latter reacted accordingly. In his haste to avoid what might be catastrophe for his army, Rosecrans did not confirm the existence of the gap but, instead, issued what might have been the single most disastrous order of the Civil War. ‘Headquarters Department of Cumberland, September 20th–10:45 a.m.,’ the communiqué read. ‘Brigadier-General Wood, Commanding Division: The general commanding directs that you close up on Reynolds as fast as possible and support him.’

Earlier that morning, Wood had received a severe public tongue-lashing from Rosecrans for not moving his troops fast enough. ‘What is the meaning of this, sir? You have disobeyed my specific orders,’ Rosecrans had shouted. ‘By your damnable negligence you are endangering the safety of the entire army, and, by God, I will not tolerate it! Move your division at once as I have instructed, or the consequences will not be pleasant for yourself.’

With Rosecrans’ stinging rebuke still echoing in his ears, Wood was not about to be accused of moving too slowly again, even though this new order confused him. Wood knew there was no gap in the Union line. Brannan had been on his left all along. To comply with the commanding general’s order, Wood was required to pull his two brigades out of line, march around Brannan’s rear, and effect a junction with Reynolds’ right. In carrying out this maneuver, Wood created a gap where none had existed.

Simultaneously, Maj. Gen. Phil Sheridan’s men were ordered out of line on Wood’s right and sent to bolster the threatened left wing, and Brig. Gen. Jefferson C. Davis’ division was ordered into the line to fill the quarter-mile hole vacated by Wood. Almost three full divisions of the Federal right wing were in motion at the same time, in the face of a heavily concentrated enemy.

Now, completely by chance, in one of those incredible situations on which turn the fortunes of men and nations, Longstreet unleashed a 23,000-man sledgehammer attack directed right at the place where Wood had been moments earlier.

At 11:30 a.m., the gray-clad legion sallied forth from the forest across LaFayette Road into the fields surrounding the little log cabin of the Brotherton family. Almost immediately it came under fire from Brannan’s men, still posted in the woods across the road. Brannan checked Stewart in his front and poured an unsettling fire into the right flank of the advancing Confederate column. Davis’ Federals, arriving from the other side, hit the Rebels on their left while his artillery began tearing holes in the ranks of the attackers.

Johnson soon realized that the heavy resistance was coming from the flanks and the firing of scattered batteries. His front was virtually clear of opposition, and he smartly ordered his troops forward at the double-quick. As he emerged from the treeline that marked Wood’s former position, Johnson saw Davis’ troops rushing forward to his left, while two of Sheridan’s brigades were on their way north towards Thomas. On Johnson’s right, Wood’s two brigades were still in the act of closing on Reynolds.

While Johnson wheeled to the right to take Wood’s trailing brigade and Brannan from behind, Hindman bowled into Davis and Sheridan, throwing them back into confusion. When Brannan gave way, Brig. Gen. H.P. Van Cleve’s division was left exposed and joined the flight from the field. In a flash of gray lightning, the entire Union right disintegrated.

The onrushing Confederates were driving a wedge far into the Federal rear. They crossed the Glenn-Kelly Road just behind the Brotherton field, rushed through heavy stands of timber, and burst onto the open ground of the cultivated fields of the Dyer farm. One Confederate regiment overran a troublesome Union battery that had been firing from the Dyer peach orchard, capturing all nine of its guns.

Johnson paused to survey the progress of the attack. Everywhere, it seemed, Union soldiers were on the run, fleeing in panic over the countryside and down the Dry Valley Road toward McFarland’s Gap, the only available avenue to reach the safety of Chattanooga. ‘The scene now presented was unspeakably grand,’ the amazed general recalled.

The brave but often reckless Hood caught up with Johnson at the Dyer farm and urged him forward. ‘Go ahead and keep ahead of everything,’ Hood shouted, his left arm still in a sling from a wound received 10 weeks earlier at Gettysburg. Moments later, Hood was hit again. This time, a Minie bullet shattered his right leg. He fell from his horse and into the waiting arms of members of his old Texas Brigade, who carried him to a field hospital, where the leg was amputated. Meanwhile, Longstreet was ecstatic as his troops swept the men in blue before them. ‘They have fought their last man, and he is running,’ he exclaimed.

Only two Federal units offered resistance of greater than company strength once the rout was on. Intrepid Colonel John T. Wilder and his brigade of mounted infantry assailed Hindman’s exposed flank and drove Brig. Gen. Arthur Manigault’s brigade back nearly a mile from the area of the breakthrough. Wilder’s stouthearted troopers from Indiana and Illinois were able to delay a force many times their size by employing the Spencer repeating rifle.

Sheridan’s only remaining brigade, under Brig. Gen. William Lytle, a well-known author and poet, was in the vicinity of the Widow Glenn house when Hindman’s Confederates began streaming through the woods. A commander much admired by his troops, Lytle was famous for his prewar poem, ‘Antony and Cleopatra,’ which was popular in the sentimental society of the day and familiar to soldiers on both sides.

Lytle found his brigade found his brigade almost completely surrounded by Rebels. With the prospect of a successful withdrawal slim, he gallantly ordered his men to charge. He told those near him that if they had to die, they would ‘die in their tracks with their harness on.’ As he led his troops forward, he shouted: ‘If I must die, I will die as a gentleman. All right, men, we can die but once. This is the time and place. Let us charge.’ Lytle was shot in the spine during the advance but managed to stay on his horse. Then, he was struck almost simultaneously by three bullets, one of which hit him in the face. As the doomed counterattack collapsed around him, the steadfast Lytle died.

Assistant Secretary of War Charles Dana was with the Army of Cumberland at Chickamauga to continue a series of reports to Washington on the progress of the Western war. Exhausted by the rapid succession of events the prior day, Dana had found a restful place that fateful morning and settled down in the grass to sleep. When Bushrod Johnson’s soldiers came crashing trough the Union line, he was suddenly wide awake. ‘I was awakened by the most infernal noise I ever heard,’ he remembered. ‘I sat up on the grass and the first thing I saw was General Rosecrans crossing himself–he was a very devout Catholic. ‘Hello!’ I said to myself, ‘if the general is crossing himself, we are in a desperate situation.”

Just then Rosecrans rode up and offered Dana some advice. ‘If you care to live any longer,’ the general said, ‘get away from here.’ The whistling of bullets grew steadily closer, and Dana now looked upon a terrible sight. ‘I had no sooner collected my thoughts and looked around toward the front, where all this din came from, than I saw our lines break and melt way like leaves before the wind.’ He spurred his horse toward Chattanooga, where he telegraphed the news of the disaster to Washington that night.

With time, the Confederate onslaught gained momentum, sweeping before it not only the Federal rank and file but also Rosecrans himself and two of his corps commanders, Crittenden and McCook. After negotiating the snarl of men, animals and equipment choking the Dry Valley Road, Rosecrans and his chief of staff, Brig. Gen. and future president James A. Garfield, stopped for a moment. Off in the distance, the sounds of battle were barely audible. Rosecrans and Garfield put their ears to the ground but were still unable to satisfy themselves as to the fate of Thomas and the left wing of the Union army.

Originally, Rosecrans had decided to go to Thomas personally and ordered Garfield to Chattanooga to prepare the city’s defenses. Garfield disagreed. He felt that Rosecrans should supervise the placement of Chattanooga’s defenders, while the chief of staff would find out what happened to Thomas. Rosecrans assented and started toward Chattanooga while Garfield moved in the direction of the battlefield. By the time he reached his destination, Rosecrans was distraught. He was unable to walk without assistance and sat with his head in his hands.

Had he known the overall situation, Rosecrans might have been in a better state of mind–if only slightly. Thomas, to the great good fortune of the Union cause, was far from finished. Those troops which had not fled the field had gathered on the slope of a heavily wooded spur that shot eastward from Missionary Ridge. From this strategic location, named Snodgrass Hill after a local family, Thomas might protect both the bulk of the army withdrawing through the ridge at McFarland’s Gap and the original positions of the Union left–if only his patchwork line could hold.

An assortment of Federal troops, from individuals to brigade strength, came together for a last stand. Virtually all command organization was gone, but the weary soldiers fell into line hurriedly to meet an advancing foe flush with victory. The Rebels drew up around the new defensive position, and a momentary lull settled over the field.

Their goal clearly before them, the emboldened Confederates then rose in unison and assailed their enemy with renewed vigor. They pressed to within feet of the Union positions, only to be thrown back again and again, leaving scores of dead and wounded on the ground behind them.

With three of Longstreet’s divisions pressing him nearly to the breaking point, Thomas noticed a cloud of dust and a large body of troops moving toward him. Was it friend or foe?

When the advancing column neared, Thomas had his answer. It was Maj. Gen. Gordon Granger with two brigades of the Union army’s reserve corps under Brig. Gen. James Steedman. These fresh but untried troops brought not only fire support but badly needed ammunition to the defenders of Snodgrass Hill, who had resorted to picking the cartridge boxes of the dead and wounded. For two days, Granger had guarded the Rossville Road north of the battlefield. By Sunday afternoon, he was itching to get into the fight. Finally, when he could stand it no longer, he bellowed, ‘I am going to Thomas, orders or no orders.’

At one point, the marauding Rebels actually seized the crest of Snodgrass Hill, planting their battle flag upon it. But thanks to numerous instances of individual heroism, the stubborn Yankees heaved them back. No single act of bravery was more spectacular than that of Steedman himself, who grabbed the regimental colors of a unit breaking for the rear and shouted: ‘Go back boys, go back. but the flag can’t go with you!’

As daylight began to fade, Thomas rode to the left to supervise the withdrawal of his remaining forces from the field, leaving Granger in command on Snodgrass Hill. Longstreet had committed Preston’s division in an all-out final attempt to carry the position, and the movement toward McFarland’s Gap began while Preston’s assaults were in progress. The protectors of Snodgrass Hill were out of ammunition again, and Granger’s order to fix bayonets and charge flashed along the lines of the 21st and 89th Ohio and the 22nd Michigan, the last three regiments left there. The desperate charge accomplished little save a few extra minutes for the rest of the army. While the last 563 Union soldiers on the hill were rounded up by Preston’s Confederates, the long night march to Chattanooga began for those fortunate enough to escape. By Longstreet’s own estimate, he had ordered 25 separate assaults against Thomas before meeting with success.

The tenacity of the defense of Horseshoe Ridge bought the Army of the Cumberland precious time. It also contributed to Bragg’s unwillingness to believe his forces had won a great victory and might follow it up by smashing into the demoralized Federals at daybreak. Not even the lusty cheers of his soldiers all along the line were enough to convince their commander. Bragg was preoccupied with the staggering loss of 17,804 casualties, 2,389 of them killed, 13,412 wounded and 2,003 missing or taken prisoner. The Union army, after suffering 16,179 casualties, 1,656 dead, 9,749 wounded and 4,774 missing or captured, retired behind Chattanooga’s defenses without further molestation.

History has been less than kind to Bragg, not without cause. True enough, over a quarter of his effective force was lost at Chickamauga. Nevertheless, at no other time in four years of fighting was there a greater opportunity to follow up a stunning battlefield triumph with the pursuit of such a beaten foe. Had Bragg attacked and destroyed Rosecrans on September 21, there would have been little to stop an advance all the way to the Ohio River. Bragg, however, was true to form. As at Perryville and Murfreesboro before, he quickly allowed victory to become hollow.

Rosecrans, on the other hand, had seen one mistaken order wreck his military reputation and almost destroy his army. His nearly flawless campaign of the spring and summer had ended with the Army of the Cumberland holed up in Chattanooga and the enemy tightening the noose by occupying the high ground of Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge. Lincoln lost faith in ‘old Rosey’s’ ability to command, saying he appeared’stunned and confused, like a duck hit on the head.’

Chickamauga, the costliest two-day battle of the entire war, proved a spawning ground of lost Confederate opportunity. While Bragg laid siege to Chattanooga with an army inadequate to do the job, Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, the hero of Vicksburg, was given overall command in the West and set about changing the state of affairs. Reinforcements poured in from east and west. During the November campaign to raise the siege, the Army of the Cumberland evened the score with the rebels in an epic charge up Missionary Ridge. And when Union soldiers next set foot on the battlefield of Chickamauga, they were on their way to Atlanta.

This article was written by Mike Haskew and originally appeared in America’s Civil War časopis. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to America’s Civil War časopis dnes!


156th Anniversary of the Battle of Chickamauga Living History & Youth Programs

Living historian presentations provide a unique opportunity for visitors and volunteers to experience the Battle of Chickamauga. During the weekends of September 14-15 and September 21-22, the park will host several living history organizations conducting programs on the experiences of various groups of soldiers who participated in the Battle of Chickamauga. In addition, during the weekend of September 14-15, the park will host special hands on programs designed for young people.

Living history programs this year will feature mounted soldiers in addition to artillery programs.

Living History Programs

“Bite the Bullet”: Myths & Realities of Civil War Medicine
11 am, 1 pm, and 2:30 pm (Friday, September 13, and Saturday, September 14)
Location: Snodgrass Cabin (Tour Stop 8)

During the Battle of Chickamauga, the Union Army turned George Snodgrass’s farm into a hospital. Join local historian Dr. Anthony Hodges to learn about how surgeons, doctors, and stewards waged their own battle to keep men alive.

Lightning Strikes at Chickamauga: Wilder’s Brigade
10 am, Noon, 2 pm, and 4 pm (Saturday, September 14) & 10 am, Noon, and 2 pm (Sunday, September 15)
Locations: Saturday, September 14 - Wilder Brigade Monument (Tour Stop 6). Sunday, September 15 - along Glenn-Viniard Road. Look for the Special Program signs

Colonel John Wilder’s “Lightning Brigade” were some of the most elite troops to take the field at Chickamauga. Armed with the latest in weapons technology, the deadly Spencer repeating rifle, they commanded the south end of the battlefield throughout the engagement. Programs will feature mounted living historians and Spencer rifle demonstrations.

Artillery Demonstrations
10:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 2:30 pm, 3:30 pm (Saturday September 14, and Sunday, September 15)
Location: Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center

At the Battle of Chickamauga, the technology of the past at times clashed with the technology of the future. While Colonel John Wilder’s men entered the battlefield with modern repeating rifles, many soldiers fought with cannon - technology that had gone largely unchanged for hundreds of years. Learn about the role artillery played at the Battle of Chickamauga with these firing demonstrations.

The Veterans Return to Chickamauga
10:30 am, 11:30 am, 1:30 pm, 2:30 pm, 3:30 pm (Saturday September 21) and
10:30 am, 11:30 am, and 1:30 pm (Sunday, September 22)
Location: Battleline Road near the King Monument

In 1889, veterans from both armies returned to Chickamauga Battlefield for a reunion that ultimately led to the creation of Chickamauga and Chattanooga National Military Park. This weekend, living historians will stage their own reunion and portray Civil War veterans and their efforts to create the park.

Youth Programs

Hands on History
Ongoing programs throughout the day (Saturday, September 14, and
Sunday, September 15)
Location: Chickamauga Battlefield Visitor Center

On Saturday September 14, and on Sunday September 15, meet a park ranger for a series of hands-on activities for young people to earn a unique Junior Ranger badge available during the battle anniversary.


Chickamauga

This is the fourth portion of E.B. Quiner’s history of the 15th Wisconsin, which fought in the Federal (Union) Army during the American Civil War (1861-1865). This portion covers the time period of May, 1863, through September, 1863. Information within brackets [ ] has been added to the original text by the webmaster to help modern readers understand what Mr. Quiner rightfully assumed mid-19th century readers would automatically know. Alternative spellings of 15th soldiers’ names have also been added within brackets by the webmaster, using spelling from the 15th’s official muster rolls. Finally, hot links have been added that will take you to on-line transcriptions of official documents and soldiers’ letters, and to profiles of soldiers, which contain additional information about the 15th or its soldiers. Užívat si!

Source: Quiner, E. B., The Military History of Wisconsin: Civil and Military Patriotism of the State, in the War for the Union. Chicago, Illinois: Clarke & Company, Publishers, 1866. Chapter XXIII, pages 622-625.
[Change of Command]

“On the 1st of May, the regiment was transferred to the Third Brigade, of which Colonel [Hans C.] Heg had been placed in permanent command, by General Rosecrans. Adjutant Henry Hauff was appointed Assistant Adjutant General, Captain Albert Skofstadt, Inspector, and Lieutenant O. R. [Ole Rasmussen] Dahl, Topographical Engineer.

The death of Lieutenant Colonel [David] McKee created a vacancy, and Major Ole C. Johnson was appointed Lieutenant Colonel, and Captain George Wilson, Major. Colonel Heg being in command of the brigade, the command of the regiment devolved on Lieutenant Colonel Johnson.

The Fifteenth, with Heg’s brigade, accompanied the movement of General Rosecrans’ forces, against General Bragg, at Tullahoma, leaving the neighborhood of Murfreesboro on the 24th of June, Heg’s brigade being detailed as the rear guard of the Twentieth Corps, under General McCook.

We have before described this march of the army, and nothing occurred of much historical importance, in which the Fifteenth was engaged. After driving Bragg out of Tennessee, General Davis’ division went into camp at Winchester, Tenn., on the 3d of July.
[First to Cross the Tennessee River]

On the 17th of August, the onward march was commenced, and the division crossed the Cumberland Mountains, to Stevenson, Ala. [Alabama], where they remained until [August] the 28th, when they led the advance of Rosecrans’ army against the enemy, in the Chickamauga campaign. Proceeding by a circuitous route, the brigade reached the Tennessee River near Caperton’s Ferry, in the neighborhood of Bridgeport, where they constructed a pontoon bridge, and the Fifteenth Wisconsin was the first regiment to cross into the enemy’s country, south of the Tennessee River.

With the rest of McCook’s corps, the division of General Davis proceeded up Wills’ Valley, to Winston’s Gap, from whence it was recalled, when General Rosecrans concentrated his troops prior to the battle of Chickamauga. General McCook’s command joined General [George] Thomas’ forces on the 18th of September, the night proceeding the great battle of Chickamauga.
[Battle of Chickamauga, Georgia]

On the morning of the 19th of September, General Davis’ division was ordered to march at daylight, but it was 8 o’clock before they got in motion. The engagement began on the extreme left, about 10 o’clock, and the cannon firing increased as they advanced. About noon they passed General Rosecrans’ headquarters, at the widow Glenn’s house, and were soon after seat forward at a double quick, and thrown into line of battle, to fill a gap which existed in the lines at that place, and of which the rebels were attempting to take advantage, by throwing in a force, and thus cut the army in twain. Heg’s brigade was formed in two lines, the Thirty-fifth Illinois on the left, the Eighth Kansas in the centre, and the Fifteenth Wisconsin on the right. The Twenty-fifth Illinois was in the second line, as a reserve. Advancing in this manner, the enemy skirmishers were driven in, and a heavy fire was received from his main line. The brigade continued to advance, however, until the Eighth Kansas began to waver and fall back. Being unsupported on the right, and the regiment on the left thus faltering, compelled the Fifteenth also to fall back, which it did, fighting, carrying off most of its wounded. Here Captain [John M.] Johnson, of Company A, was killed. Being reinforced, they regained the lost ground. Colonel Heg was conspicuously active, and labored with the utmost bravery to make up by personal valor, what he lacked in numbers. The forces in this part of the field were, however, compelled to yield to superior numbers, and fell back across an open field. The regiment was stationed in reserve a few moments, when the front line was driven back. The regiment was lying down as the Thirty-fifth Illinois passed over them, intending to form in the rear of the Fifteenth, but did not, and passed through a column of reinforcements, which were just coming up. The reinforcements, supposing the Thirty-fifth to be the last Union regiment in their front, mistook the Fifteenth for a rebel regiment, and opened fire, while the enemy began a heavy fire on the other side. Being thus placed under the galling fire of both friend and foe, the regiment was compelled to break, and each man looked out for himself. The regiment was no more together that day as an organization, but the men attached themselves temporarily to the commands they first encountered, and stayed with them till night. Another advance was made, and the lost ground occupied until near sundown, when Lieutenant Colonel Johnson proceeded to gather his scattered regiment. About this time, Colonel Heg was wounded by a shot in the bowels, which proved fatal next day. Captain [John M.] Johnson, of Company A, and Captain [Henry] Hauff, of Company E, were killed Major [George] Wilson and Captain Captain [Augustus] Gasman were severely wounded, Captain [Hans] Hanson, of Company C, mortally wounded, and Second Lieutenant C. S. Tanberg [Christian E. Tandberg], of Company D, was also wounded.

The remnant of the Fifteenth was aroused at 3 o’clock next morning, and put in a commanding position near the Chattanooga road, to the right and somewhat to the rear of the rest of the army. About 10 o’clock the skirmishers became engaged on the left, and the battle soon raged with great fury on that part of the field. [General] Sheridan’s and [General] Davis’ divisions were soon ordered forward to occupy the extreme right of the line. Davis’ division consisted of the Second Brigade, Colonel Carlin, and the Third, (late Heg’s) now commanded by Colonel Martin, of the Eighth Kansas. Carlin’s brigade occupied the frontline, his left joining General Wood’s right, with the Third Brigade in his rear as support. We have elsewhere related the great blunder at Chickamauga, whereby General Wood’s division was withdrawn, and the divisions of Sheridan and Davis were allowed to be outflanked and slaughtered. A recapitulation here is therefore unnecessary. After General Wood’s departure, Colonel Heg’s brigade was ordered to fill the gap, with about 600 fighting men. The Third Brigade had hardly time to get into line, before the rebels attacked them. Protected by a slight barricade of logs and rails, they were warmly received, and repulsed with great slaughter. A second charge was also bravely repulsed, soon after which, the right and left flanks were turned, Sheridan’s division not having come up on the right of Carlin and a large gap still existed in the position vacated by General Wood. Holding out to the last, in hopes reinforcements would come, the regiment, when almost surrounded, broke, the last to leave their position, and many were captured, among them, Lieutenant Colonel [Ole C.] Johnson. [To read the personal account of the battle by Lieutenant Colonel Johnson, click HERE]

An effort was made to gather the scattered men near the Chattanooga road, but it proved a failure, and the retreat was continued a mile south of the road, where a good position was obtained, and here men were gathered from the division, and from most of the regiments of the corps, who had got separated from their commands. The whole force was consolidated, and the position held until 5 o’clock in the afternoon, when they were ordered three or four miles further to the rear, where they camped for the night. Here the fragments of the regiment were gathered. The day before, their [the 15th’s] aggregate [strength] was 176 [officers and enlisted men], it was now reduced to 75.

The killed and wounded [at Chickamauga], as officially reported, were:

KILLED OR DIED OF WOUNDS — Field Officer — Colonel Hans Heg. Company A — Captain J. M. Johnson, Second Lieutenant Oliver Thompson. Company B — Privates John Johnson and Gunder Olson. Company C — Captain Hans Hanson, Private John Simondson [John Simonsen]. Company D — Private Halvor Halvorson [Halvor Halvorsen]. Company E — Captain Henry Hauff. Company H — Private Knute Bjornson [Knud Bjornson]. Company K — Corporal Ole M. Dorvnass [Ole N. Damness] — 11 [total].

WOUNDED — Field Officer — Major George Wilson, severely. Company A — Sergeant Amand Geterson [Omund Petersen], Privates Christian M. Johnson, Amund Olson and Hubbard Hammock. Company B — Sergeant A. G. Urnaes [Anders J. Urness], Privates Nils Anderson, Osten Knudson, Hans Lageson, Jacob Jacobson and John Inglestad. Company C — Sergeants Christian Hyer [Christian Heyer] and John Lansworth, Corporal James Overson [James Oversen], Privates Peter Anderson (Sr.), Torstun Hendrickson [Torsten Hendricksen], Basmus Jensen [Rasmus Jensen], Hans C. Sorenson [Hans C. Sorensen] and Carl Sobjornson [Carl Torbjornsen]. Company D — Second Lieutenant C. E. Tanberg [Christian E. Tandberg], Sergeant Ole M. Bendixen [Ole M. Bendixon], Privates Thomas Thompson and Anders Amundson. Company E — Privates John H. Stokke [Johannes H. Stokke], Anson Kjellevig [Anund Kjellesvig] and Nils Hanson [Nils Hansen]. Company F — Sergeant Ole B. Johnson [taken prisoner], Privates Ole W. Vigen [Ole K. Vigen] and Torkeld Togerson [Torkild Torgersen]. Company H — Corporal Nels J. Eide, Privates Ole L. Hangnoes [Ole S. Haugness] and Sam. Samson [Sams Sampson]. Company I — Captain August Gasman, at the time, commanding Company D. Company K — Sergeants Ellend Erickson [Lieutenant Ellend Errickson] and Lars A. Larson, Privates Haagen Geterson [Haagen Pederson], Ole Olson [Ole Aslison?], and Ole Johnson [Oemund Johnson]. — 37 [total].

Forty-eight were missing, mostly taken prisoners. [To review a list detailing the names and fate of the 15th’s casualties (killed, wounded, and Missing), click HERE]

All the field officers being disabled, Captain [Mons] Grinager took command of the regiment. [To read the 15th’s official after action report written by Captain Grinager, click HERE] Soon after breakfast, on the 21st, companies G and I, which had been stationed at Island No. 10 since June 11th, 1862, joined the regiment. They numbered eighty men – more than all the other companies put together. [To read the 3rd Brigade official after action report by Colonel Martin, click HERE.]

Rail breastworks were thrown up, but the enemy made no attack, and the brigade was ordered, at 10 P. M., to proceed to Chattanooga, where they arrived about daybreak, and commenced throwing up breastworks. Here the regiment, with the whole army, suffered severely for fuel, provisions and clothing, there being only a single line of communications over the Cumberland Mountains, to Stevenson, 180 miles, which was continually interrupted by the rebel cavalry. Captain [John] Gordon, of Company G, joined the regiment on the 28th of September, and being senior Captain, took command.” [To read the official Chickamauga report of General Davis, the 15th’s Division Commander, click HERE.]

[To read excerpts from letters, diaries, and interviews of 15th soldiers about their experiences during the May through September, 1863, time period, click HERE]


Battle of Chickamauga - History

Map titled “Draft of battle, 19th-20th Sept” drawn by George C. Lusk, with labels added (click image to enlarge). MCHS archival document.

The map above was drawn by George Campbell Lusk. The title, “Draft of battle, 19th-20th Sept,” and the reference to Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps in Rossville indicate it is a map of the Battle of Chickamauga.

The battle took place September 18-20, 1863, in northwestern Georgia. The Union force of 58,000 troops (the Army of the Cumberland, led by Major General William Rosecrans, and Major General Gordon Granger’s Reserve Corps) fought 66,000 soldiers of the Confederate Army of Tennessee, led by General Braxton Bragg. Seven of every 25 men on the battlefield were killed or physically wounded. Only the Battle of Gettysburg incurred more casualties than the Battle of Chickamauga during the Civil War.

Chickamauga was one of several battles over the city of Chattanooga. Earlier in the month, Rosecrans had succeeded in forcing Bragg out of the city. Bragg wanted to take it back and destroy Rosecrans’s army. The forces clashed at Chickamauga Creek. After three days the Confederates earned a victory by forcing the Union troops to retreat from the battlefield. But Rosecrans’s army survived and retained control of Chattanooga.

It isn’t known when George Lusk drew this map. He served as Captain of Company K, 10th Illinois Volunteer Infantry. The soldiers of the 10th were part of Major General Granger’s Reserve Corps, but they were stationed at the Union supply base in Bridgeport, Alabama, during the Battle of Chickamauga. Lusk’s map includes Bridgeport, although it is actually about 40 miles downriver from the battleground.

Private Joel Waters of Company K wrote to his brother about Captain Lusk:

“I have got a very good captain he passes me out [i.e. gives me written permission to leave camp] every day if I want to go but I never get tight [i.e. drunk] and always come back when he tells me to. Some of the Captains is hard on their men and punish them for most any little offense.”

(Written December 15, 1861, from Camp Morgan, Mound City, Illinois. From Correspondence of Joel E. Waters, str. 10-12.)

Lusk was a 37-year-old veteran of the Mexican War, married with two children, when he joined the Union cause. He was born in Edwardsville, Illinois. Lusk fulfilled his three-year term of service in August of 1864 but was unable to resign until October due to the responsibilities of command. (Click here to read a transcription of Lusk’s resignation letter.) He returned to Edwardsville where he and his wife Mary had a third child. Lusk worked as a United States revenue agent and then as a policeman and police magistrate. He died in 1892 and is buried in Lusk Cemetery in Edwardsville.

Ideas for Teachers (or anyone who wants to take a deeper dive into the map)

Some relevant essential questions for students to explore:

  • What events happened during the Civil War and what impact did they have?
  • What impact did military leadership have on the conduct of the war?

Possible classroom activities:

  • Re-draw George Lusk’s map to scale and compare it to Lusk’s version.
  • Compare George Lusk’s map of the Battle of Chickamauga to maps of the battle found in history books and discuss the differences.
  • Read John Waters’s letters from September and October of 1863 (p. 33-37) describing his experiences in Company K before and after the battle and discuss how they provide context for the map.

Sources for this article include United States federal decennial census records and the following additional sources:


Battle of Chickamauga - History

The Chickamauga Campaign

Battle Description A brief, fairly detailed, description of the battle itself, with map of the 2nd day action.
Battle of Chickamauga Another good battle description with a Union slant. Taken from "The Army Of The Cumberland" By Henry M. Cist, Brevet Brigadier-General U. S. V.
The Chickamauga Campaign A very good description of the campaign, with a Southern slant, taken from the Georgia volume of the Confederate Military History.
Chickamauga With Longstreet Chickamauga as seen by James Longstreet as described in his book, "From Manassas to Appomattox."
Gordon on Chickamauga From " Reminiscences Of The Civil War" By John B. Gordon, Maj. Gen., CSA
D.H. Hill at Chickamauga Article taken from Battles and Leaders of The Civil War.
From The Official Records
Union Order of Battle Presents the Organization of the Army of the Cumberland
Confederate Order of Battle Presents the Organization of the Army of Tennessee
Summary of Principal Events This lists the principal events of the campaign from Aug. 16 - Sept. 22, 1863

Official Reports (After Action)


Podívejte se na video: The Battle of Chickamauga 1863. Animated Battle. Campaign Part 1 (Smět 2022).


Komentáře:

  1. Bowdyn

    Chtěl bych pokračovat ... Přihlásit se k odběru kanálu :)

  2. Akello

    Yes, all is logical

  3. Gibbesone

    I don't know what is so new and interesting here, no doubt useful, but still secondary ...

  4. Danilo

    Toto je rozvod, že rychlost je 200%?

  5. Maujinn

    Jaká slova nezbytná ... Skvělá, vynikající nápad



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